Digestion

breakdown and absorption of nutrients

Digestion–Foundation for Absorption, mixed media-digital by  Kim Martens | Craig Kiefer

Digestion–Foundation for Absorption, mixed media-digital by Kim Martens | Craig Kiefer

TRACT

mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum, anus

BILLIARY STUCTURES

pancreas, gallbladder, liver


Macronutrients

Carbohydrate: Major Source of Energy


  • Simple: 1 or 2 sugar molecules / found in table sugar, fruits, milk
  • Complex: more than 2 sugar molecules attached in a chain / found in grains, legumes, vegetables, pasta, bread
  • Unrefined vs Refined: refining carbohydrates removes the fibrous outer coating, transforming brown wheat or rice into white wheat or rice and reducing the nutritional content
  • Glycemic Index

 

Protein: Build Tissues, Facilitate Reactions, Store Energy


  • Essential amino acids: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, histidine

 

Fat


  • Essential Fatty Acids: structure and signaling
    •  linoleic acid (omega-6), alpha-linoleic acid (omega-3)
  • Saturated: no double bonds between carbons
    • dairy, eggs, meats, and tropical oils
  • Monounsaturated: single double bond between carbons
    • olive oil, canola oil
  • Polyunsaturated: multiple double bonds between carbons
    • nuts, seeds, seed oils

 

Micronutrients

Vitamins

Minerals

Water